Rubber Sheet - like a heat map, but used to map four or more dimensions, through the use of a colored, three dimensional surface.
Isosurfaces - maps of data that resemble topographic maps.
2D Isolines represent a constant value on a graph or chart
Isosurfaces use the same concept by applying a data set in the third dimension
Displaying a constant in the 3rd dimension using color
E.G. Value of constant pressure in varying conditions
A bad example:
Postcards From Google Earth
Input is usually a physical property (elevation, density) overlaid on a 2D map of an object (the planet, a molecule)